Nepal is situated between China and India. The upper part of the Himalayas and the Terai lowland tropical low altitude, due to their latitudinal variation and unique geographical position, are the countries with the greatest biological diversity make Nepal variation. The country has the world's tallest mountains, the medieval city, and 10 world heritage sites, the ancient Hindus and Buddhists and shrines of the lush rainforest (Bengal Tiger and one-horned rhino hornbills and other endangered species habitats) make Nepal unique in the world.
The capital, Kathmandu, is the mixture of the old and the new. Old monuments and modern skyscrapers stand out and the capital is one of the oldest cities in the world. The city is made up of three medieval cities of Bhaktapur, Patan, and Kathmandu. The palace squares built by the Kingdom of Malla in the three ancient kingdoms remains, as do the ancient temples and Buddhist shrines. Located in Shivapuri, deep valley Nagarjuna, Pulchowki, Champa Devi and Chandragiri surrounded by green hills in the city for outdoor sports and hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, nature walks and the other offers innumerable opportunities for the adventure. Pokhara, the birthplace of the Buddha, "City of Lakes" and "Lumbini" are other popular destinations frequented by tourists.
For lovers of adventure and nature, Nepal is a paradise. There are eight mountain peaks (peak of 8,000 meters) and more than 100 peaks of different heights. From 8000 to 7000 meters high up to 6000 peaks, climbers of all levels can have various opportunities. In addition, these giant snowy trails in the mountains are also the best hiking trails in the world. Walking through these mountain trails offers some of the most impressive views and unique cultural experiences. The Himalayan mountain glaciers are ideal for rafting, canoeing, canyoning and more.
You can also relax other adventures such as bungee jumping, mountain biking, gliding, mountain biking, wildlife safari and more.
The recorded history of Nepal began when Kirats in the eastern part of the country began to rule the country. The first ruler of the Kathmandu Valley is Kirats. Allambar is the first king, as he also mentioned in the Mahabharata Indian epic. After Kirats, Lichchhvi, the second ruler of the country, began to govern between the fourth and seventh centuries. The temple of Changunarayan was built in Lichchhvi period, which can be seen today. The Malla period was the golden period of Kathmandu valley when great numbers of art, statues, and temples were built. During the 14th century, Malla ruled this valley for a total period of 568 years. At that period this country was divided into small principalities and kingdoms of 24 groups in western and 22 groups in far western Kathmandu valley was divided into three states of Kantipur(Kathmandu), Lalitpur(Patan) & Bhaktapur.
From the tiny Kingdom of Gorkha, halfway between Kathmandu and Pokhara the king of Shah Dynasty gradually strengthened and extended their power. In 1768 king Prithvi Narayan Shah defeated the Malla kings and from then on Nepal was ruled by Shah Kings ever since. The rule of the Shah dynasty lasted till 2008 when a popular people’s revolution ousted the then reigning Shah king, His Majesty Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, the twelfth king of the Shah dynasty and established federal democracy in the country. After centuries of monarchical rule, Nepal became the youngest federal republic in the world.
Nepal is a sovereign country of small mountains located in South Asia. It is a landlocked country located between China and the north, between India and the southeast and the west. Nepal covers an area of 1.47,181 square kilometers. It represents 0.03% of the surface of the earth. It is between 26'22'N and 30'27'N and between 80'4'and 88'12'E. This country is very small, only 880 km. something long, wide from north to south, ranging from 145 to 241 km. Then, the average width is 193 kilometers, covering approximately the same area of land.
Nepal divided geographically into three regions:
1. The Himalayas
Himalaya covers an area of 15%, located at a height of 4,700 meters and on the northern edge. The area is Himalaya continuous high glaciers and mountain lakes. Several national parks and wildlife reserves protect the diverse mountain ecology of the area. People living in this region also differ in their culture from Nepalese people living in the lowlands.
2. Hilly (Mountain) Region
The Hilly region covers 68% of the total land area of Nepal. It is formed by the Mahabharat range that soars to touch mountain regions at an altitude of 600 m to 4700 m height. In winter, there’s snowfall in high hills. This region is formed by beautiful valleys like Kathmandu and Pokhara which is now famous for its fascinating lakes in Pokhara Fewa, Begnas, and Rupa.
3. Terai /Plain
The Terai region represents 17% of the total land area. The area is at an altitude of between 70 and 600 meters above sea level. The pilgrimage destinations of Ranjbiraj, Janakpur, Baraha chhettra and Lumbini are in this area. Four national parks and wildlife reserves in Nepal, including the Chitwan National Park, the Khaptad Wildlife Sanctuary, and the Bardia National Park, are located in the area.
People and language
The population of Nepal is more than 28 million, and the diverse, different population, different ethnic lifestyles, and culture, different languages and dialects make Nepal Unity in diversity and vice versa.
Sherpa lives mainly in the eastern and central mountains of Nepal, especially in the Solu Khumbu area. Sherpa may be the most famous Nepali tribe in Tibet, which settled in the area about 500 years ago. Sherpa also is known as "Snow Leopard", who lives in the Himalayas, with an average elevation of 4570 meters.
Bahuns and Chhetris are simply the two highest castes, the Bahuns and Chhetirs are spread generally over most parts of the Kingdom. The progeny of Bahun men and hill women were considered Chhetri and a number of high-status families from other hill groups have also adopted Chhetri status, so some do have Mongoloid tribal ancestry. All Bahuns and Chhetris are Hindu.
The Newars constitute an important ethnic group in the capital valley Kathmandu. The Newaris of the Kathmandu valley is a good example of the result of this Himalayan melting pot.
The Gurung and Magars live mainly in the west and on the southern slopes of Annapurna, Himalchuli and Ganesh Himal mountains. The Magars and Gurungs also often work as Gurkha soldiers.
The Rais, Limbus, and Sunuwars inhabit the slopes and valleys of the eastern mid hills and many have migrated to the eastern Tarai. The larger number of people find employment with Gurkha regiments.
Tamangs are one of the largest Tibet – Burman ethnic group in Nepal. Around half the Himalayan zone of Nepal is inhabited by Tamangs. Many Tamangs have been influenced in their dress by both western and Newari styles. Traditionally, women wear a colorful wraparound skirt, a blouse, jacket, and scarf. On important occasion, they wear chunky gold or brass ear and nose rings set with semiprecious stones. Men wear loincloths or the traditional Newari pant, short – sleeved jackets and topis. Both men and women wear several meters of cloth wrapped around the waist.
The Thakalis live mainly Kali Gandaki valley in central Nepal; the Thakalis are a Tibeto Burman people who have become the entrepreneurs of Nepal. Originally Buddhist, many pragmatic Thakalis have now adopted Hinduism. The actual number of Thakalis is very small.
Tharus, Yadavs, Satar, Rajvanshis, and Dhimals are spread generally in the Tarai region. Tharus are one of the largest ethnic group in Nepal.
Nepal has 70 different languages. Although different groups and races have their own language and dialect, Nepalese is the national language, written in the Devanagari script. The native language of "Nepal" is Nepali and everybody understands this, but in different regions, the style of speaking may be different.
Weather and climate
Topographical extremities control the climate conditions of Nepal. It ranges from tropical to arctic level. During the summer, Low-land Terai region with its maximum altitude at 305m, which lies in the tropical southern part of the country, has a hot and humid climate that can rise above 45 Degree. The winter night will be cool and Mid-land regions are pleasant almost all the year round. At an altitude above 3,300m has an alpine climate with considerably lower temperatures in winter.
People say migrating birds can easily adjust in Nepal. Nepal’s weather is generally predictable and pleasant according to the way of the weather forecast.
The year is divided into 4 seasons of Nepal
If you are spring lover will be best and exciting time when the flowers are in full bloom and mountain slopes covered with colorful flowers. Likewise, if you are interested to observe the exotic views of the mountain, autumn is the most popular tourist season to visit with temperatures in the low to mid 20’s with clear blue skies. Though its cold in winter but a short trek can be easily accomplished at this time of year. Summer is the Monsoon season of Nepal. There is heavy rainfall in mid-summer but this is the best time of the year to watch the cascading waterfalls. Winter and summer are considered the fewer tourist seasons of Nepal but nowadays people are traveling with various taste and desire to Nepal.
Festivals and holiday
The schedule of the government office is 10 a. m. to 5 p. M. Closed on Saturdays (including immigration) and embassies. The banks are open from Sunday to Friday, some open on Saturday mornings, and you can always use ATMs because they are not closed, although they are used to running out of money. Shopping for souvenirs and sightseeing is possible every day.
Nepal has the colorful festival, especially for the less affluent, and its celebrations are very energetic. The date is usually determined by the lunar calendar, so there will be different days each year. The following will be of particular interest to tourists.
Dashain (Bijaya Dasami): this is the largest and best-known Hindu national festival in Nepal, usually in early October. It started with Ghatsthapana. Throughout the two week celebration, the eighth, ninth and tenth days were the most active and auspicious day. The main god worshiped during Dashain is the Goddess Durga. On a ninth day, thousands of devotee visit to worship her in important temples of Durga. The tenth day is the culminating day. People visit their elderlies to get Tika (blessing).
Tihar (Deepawali): this is another Hindu festival held in Nepal and India. This is the Festival of Lights at the end of October or the beginning of November. The celebration lasted five days. This is a festival held every autumn in the bright blue sky. The festival begins with an adoration of crows and dogs of adoration the next day. On the third day, the waxed goddess Laxmi was worshiped. The fifth day, worship your own soul. The sisters also worship their brothers on this day. This is called Bhai Tika, it is the main day of this festival.
Mani Rimdu: This is one of the most attractive Buddhist festivals in the Himalayas that are observed every year, usually in November. Tengboche, one of the highest monastery in Solu Khumbu district of Nepal, is the focal point of this festival. The main attraction of this festival is a variety of masked dances with religious significance.
Losar: This is one of the most important holidays for Sherpas and Tibetans. Celebrate around mid-February of each year. The festival focuses on celebrating the Tibetan New Year. Many fascinating rituals and celebrations have been observed in the Buddha and in the Tibetan settlements, such as the Tibetan Refugee Camp in Jawlakhel and Pokhara.
Buddha Jayanti: Celebrate the birth of the Buddha on the first day of May.
Shiva Ratri: The night of Shivaratri or Shiva is observed in March. It was celebrated in memory of Shiva. Thousands of Sadhus and pilgrims from Nepal and India visit the Pashupatinath temple.
In addition to these great festivals, there are many small festivals and holidays in Nepal, such as New Year's Day, Constitution Day, Prithvi Jayanti, National Day of Democracy and others. Nepal is the meeting point of two different religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, two races, and two civilizations, India and China. The population has a variety of ethnic groups, each with its own unique identity. Polygamy persists in parts of Nepal despite the ban on polygamy in the 1960s.
Culture and custom
Nepal is a meeting place for two different religions: Hinduism and Buddhism, two races, the Caucasus and the Mongols, two civilizations, India and China. The population has a variety of ethnic groups, each with its own unique identity. Polygamy is still practiced in some areas of Nepal despite the prohibition of polygamy in the 1960s.
Many Hindu temples do not allow Westerners to enter, but they are free to look from the outside. Always walk around the Buddhist stupa clockwise direction, Chortens or walls of Mani. Everyone should take off their shoes and any article made of leather, such as belts and bags are not allowed to enter the religious places.
Public perceptions of emotions are not accepted and should not be pushed into rivers or lakes. In the northern mountains, polygamous wives also have more of a husband habit. On the other hand, the Gurung Group has a place for entertainment called Rodihgar, destined to unite people and then consider marriage. New widow getting married is not socially acceptable in some groups. Brahmins and other ethnic groups are forbidden to drink and are sometimes restricted by vegetarians, and among Brahmin families, men get married the first time they meet their wives. The Sherpas have a very free and simple code of ethics.
Some cultural shocks
The lifestyle of the people in these villages is a true manifestation of the traditional culture of Nepal, which, unlike the cities, has minimal
Western influence. Because of this, visitors should be aware that they may encounter some cultural shock when they arrive.
Shopping and mall
The more places you visit in Nepal, the more you explore. Nepal is an incredibly beautiful and diverse fairyland. And, in the last places in Nepal have been the most visited places by travelers from around the world. Kathmandu is the capital of Nepal. This is the most populated city in Nepal, full of lively life. People can even replicate their lives in city shopping and nightlife. Kathmandu is considered the best place to buy a local product according to its brand. People can find many shopping centers in Kathmandu to buy according to their needs. Import and export of different types of clothing, shoes, accessories, appliances, electronic products, etc., can be found in the same place, the price is cheap. Kathmandu shopping center, city center, public squares, shopping centers can give you the best chance until the best. Your guide can always provide you help, and you will be the best person during the trip and travel in rural areas. In addition to the equipment we offer, you can also buy the equipment you need in your daily life.
Nepal's nightlife, especially in the capital, Kathmandu, is fun. Thamel and Durbarmarg are the main areas of nightlife. Kathmandu has several clubs, bars, and nightclubs. Nightclubs, bars, casinos, and nightclubs are ideal places to relax and revitalize. Live entertainment in local pubs and bars. Near Thamel, in Kathmandu, there are several bars and pubs, one near the other. Everyone has their own style, so take a look at which of them you choose to attract. Whatever type of bar or club you want, you can find it in Kathmandu.
Forex and Banking
The money can be exchanged at any bank. The bank's schedule is 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., from Sunday to Thursday, Friday 10 a.m. to noon. Credit cards are generally accepted, including Visa and MasterCard and service fees are charged. There is no black market in Nepal. Sometimes, taking a larger note in the village can be a problem.
There are many ATMs in Kathmandu and Pokhara. ATMs are slowly being introduced in other major cities. On Thamel Street, there are several machines. International credit cards (MasterCard, Visa, etc.) are acceptable in all major hotels, shopping centers, bars and restaurants in Nepal. Traveler’s checks are also accepted here. The most popular cards accepted in Nepal include VISA, MASTERCARD, and American Express. Debit and credit cards can be used here.
The Nepalese currency is the Nepalese rupee, which equals 100 Paisa. You can find rupee notes. 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000. The value of convertibles changes constantly from other currencies, including the US dollar. US, Sterling, Euro, Australian dollar, Japanese yen, etc.
The roads in Nepal are diverse. Some are good, others may be under construction, some are narrow and others are steep. Take precautionary measures is necessary when driving in the car or driving on the road. Traffic jams are common during business hours. Road travel does not entail risks if you drive carefully. Similarly, it is highly recommended that you have travel insurance.
People can even drink water directly from rivers and taps. Although we recommend that you buy and drink bottled water, Nepal's water is pure and less polluting.
You can find transformers, plug adapters and converters easily purchased in Kathmandu and other major cities.
The convenience of city traffic, convenient transportation. Buses, taxis, fast cars, vans, and rickshaws can be found everywhere.
Taxi: Taxis are very common and are usually identified with black plates front and back. You can even get a taxi in the evening, but the fare is higher than during the day. You can also get a private car through a travel agency or a car rental agency. The hotel or resort can also provide this service.
Bus: Nepalese buses are especially full during the holiday season. People can take the minibus (Hiace) in the Kathmandu Valley, Bhaktapur, Patan and other remote areas. Other popular buses scheduled and in good condition, such as Makalu Yatayat, Burning Buses and buses to and from the main cities of Kathmandu and Nepal. The main bus terminal is located in New Buspark of Gongabu. The new law also introduced a night bus system in Kathmandu with its "Ratri Sewa" terminal (night service).
Motorcycles: Motorcycles can be rented in the Thamel and Lazimpat areas of Kathmandu. These motorcycles are generally 90-250cc bicycles, the most popular motorcycle in Nepal is the Hero Honda Splendor. The hotel or travel agency can provide you with a detailed guide to your hiring process.
Rickshaw: the rickshaw can give you the fun of roaming, but it is also very interesting. It's cheaper than taxi facilities. Rickshaws are available even in touristic areas. Thamel, Basantapur and Durbar Marg in Kathmandu
In cities and developed areas, communication facilities are cheap and available. For your phone to work, you must contact your service provider and verify if the countries of Nepal are included in your global roaming packages. You can also get the buying facilities of the SIM card at the Tribhuvan International airport.
The rural areas do not have Internet, and the only possible wireless mode (CDMA technology, wireless Internet through the telephone company) cannot generate high-speed connections. If you want to book a wireless CDMA SIM card and a USB modem in advance, let us know.
However, there are receptions for the local telephone operator. Buying a local SIM card for a local phone is another good option for international communications.
Nepal has a wide range of climates, so it is appropriate to wear light and warm clothing that is casual and comfortable. In the mountains, warm wool clothing is necessary, while cotton clothing at low height is ideal. Bring something so you can use comfortably. Do not worry if you lose your clothes. Buy Nepalese clothes, a snow jacket, a pair of pants and a T-shirt with less than 50 dollars.
Health and safety measures
You must take precautions. While entering Nepal you need to receive one or two vaccines against common diseases such as malaria. In Nepal, eat cooked food. Avoid the salad. Only drink bottled water from well-known brands. Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and other soft drinks are good for drinking. Avoid fast food. Wear a mask (if possible) when walking on dusty and polluted streets, especially in Nepal's summer, on the streets. During the day, many private clinics and hospitals are open. The pharmacy near the hospital is open 24 hours (Bir Hospital, Teaching Hospital, Patan Hospital, etc.).
Passport & Visa; You need a visa to enter Nepal. Embassies and consulates in Nepal to grant visas. You can also obtain a tourist visa to reach the Tribhuwan International Airport or any immigration office/entry point. Any foreigner who intends to visit Nepal must have a valid passport or a travel document equivalent to a passport issued by the local government before applying for a visa. Indian citizens do not need a visa to enter Nepal.
Citizens of these countries must apply for visas in advance through the Nepal Consulate in Nepal, Ghana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, Cameroon, Somalia, Liberia, Ethiopia, Iraq, Palestine, and Afghanistan.
The visa of arrival to trip is a variety of visa, available 15 days, 30 days and 90 days. When you apply for a visa, your passport must be valid for at least six months and you will need two passport photos
Visa Fees: Here are the fees for the tourist visas to Nepal: (Note that- Nationals of SAARC countries, Chinese nationals and children under 10 years need not pay any visa fees) 15 Days- US$ 25, 30 Days- US$ 40 and 90 Days- US$ 100
Tourist Visa Extension; Visas can also be extended following the policies of Nepal Government. Fees for tourist visa extension for 15 days or less is US$ 30. Tourist Visa can be extended for more than 15 days by paying the US $ 2 or equivalent Nepalese currency per day. Tourist visas can be extended for a maximum period of 150 days in a year.
For more information on other kinds of visas and immigration issues, please go through this link of Nepal Government’s Department of Immigration: http://www.nepalimmigration.gov.np/
By Air; The Tribhuvan International Airport is the only international airport in Nepal. Nepal Airlines is the flagship airline of Nepal and other international operators operate many international flights to different cities in the world.
By Land; Kathmandu is connected to India through the most beautiful highway through the fertile plains. Tourists can drive their own cars, but their vehicles must have international credentials. There is a regular bus service from Kathmandu at all border points. Bus service from India to Nepal is easy. Lhasa buses only have less snow time. The entrances to the border between Nepal and India are Kakarbhitta, Birgunj, Bhairahawa, Nepalgunj, Dhangadi, and Mahendranagar. The entrance to the border between Nepal and China (Tibet) is Tatopani and Kerung.
Travel insurance is an obligation to make any trip. Adequate protection must be provided throughout the trip to cover personal injury, death, medical expenses, repatriation costs, helicopter rescue, air ambulances and adequate baggage insurance.
Some facts about Nepal
Instead of greeting each other with handshakes, the Nepalese joined their palms and bowed their heads towards Namaste (literally, "I greet you").